Instructions for authors

The length of the text should be no more than 10,000 words, including reference list, endnotes and an abstract of no more than 200 words. Use Times New Roman, 12 point font, double-spaced. The most important style aspects are listed below. Please follow them closely and be advised that it is the author’s responsibility to make sure that all references, dates and other style-related text is formatted in accordance with these instructions. Once that is done, you can send in your article with the cover page on the email address The submission should also contain an attached and signed License Agreement.

Cover page
To ensure anonymity in the review of manuscripts, keep identifying material out of the manuscript. Use the “inspect document” function in Word to delete identifying information in the file properties. Attach a separate cover page providing the author’s or authors’ full name(s), institutional affiliation, current postal and e-mail address, short biographical statement (max 75 words), and acknowledgements. Please also add three to five keywords. Provide only the title as identification on the manuscript and abstract.

General terminology
Geographical and other names should be written in the original language. Use diacritics where appropriate. References in Cyrillic or Asian writings systems should be transliterated into the Latin alphabet. Avoid using masculine forms when this is unnecessary.

Individuals are to be introduced with a full name and title in the first instance. This includes famous theorists (Edward Said, Michel Foucault).

Headings and subheadings
The paper should be broken up into at least three sections with headings. The first paragraph should start without a heading. Do not number the different sections of the paper.

Headings with two parts should separate the parts with a colon (i.e. “Multicultural Britain: Essays and Reflections”) when written in English, otherwise follow the appropriate national standard.

Capitalize the first word of both the heading and subheading and the first word of title or subtitle sections after a colon. All important words in the title or subtitle should be capitalized. Unimportant prepositions and conjunctions should not be capitalized (i.e. “Urban Multilingualism in Europe: Immigrant Minority Languages at Home and School”; “Current Multilingualism: A New Linguistic Dispensation”). If unsure, please used Chicago MS on this page:

We use the British English standard and punctuation system with double quotation marks. This means punctuation comes before the closing quotation mark if the quotation forms a grammatically complete sentence, but after if it does not:

  • He said: “The conference had been most successful.”
  • “The conference”, he wrote, “had been most successful.”
  • The conference had been “a most successful one”.
  • He told us that the conference had been “most successful”.

Quotations of more than three lines should be blocked, and separated with a line space above and below. Retain the original paragraphs. Do not use single spacing.
All non-English quotations are to be translated. Also, italicize non-English words, e.g. “The Wehrmacht attacked the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941”. Italicization is not necessary when you are using an Anglicized form, e.g. “The Chekists executed”. Place translations of isolated words and short phrases in brackets after the non-English original. Do not use “ENG:” or other language markers.


  • “In-text” quotations are used, e.g. author, year and page number in brackets (Bauman 1987, 55). When two author please use both with an “and” (not “&”); when three or more use first and add “et al.”.
  • Date and page ranges should be supplied with en dash; e.g. ”1998–91” or (Bauman 1987, 115–20).
  • Footnotes are not to be used.
  • Endnotes should be used very restrictively and will be removed at the editor’s discretion if not containing essential information for understanding the content. Do not use endnotes to include suggested further reading, for example.
  • Use following reference formats for monographs, articles, book chapters and interenet pages:

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Edited volume
Young, Marilyn B. and Buzzanco, Robert, eds. A Companion to the Vietnam War. Ed. Malden, Mass., Blackwell.

Book chapter
Prados. John. 2002. “The Vietnam Antiwar Movement in Fact and Memory”,  in A Companion to the Vietnam War. Eds. Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco. Malden, Mass., Blackwell, 403–415.

Journal article
Fishman, Joshua. 1967. “Bilingualism With and Without Diglossia; Diglossia With and Without Bilingualism”, Journal of Social Issues 32/2, 29–38.

Newspaper article
Hogan, Linda. 1996. “Silencing Tribal Grandmothers – Traditions, Old Values At Heart of Makah’s Clash Over Whaling”, The Seattle Times, 15 December: B 9.

Langscheidt. n.d. “Jugendwort des Jahres”, (accessed 28 October 2019).


  • 30 November 1987 (not November 30, 1987)
  • 1910–18; 1981–82; 1979–81, 1794–1810
  • Spell out the names of centuries (“the nineteenth century”) instead of using Arabic or Roman numerals. When used as an adjectival phrase, century names should be hyphenated (“mid-twentieth-century fiction”). “Twenty-first” is always hyphenated (“the first decades of the twenty-first century” but “twenty-first-century politics”).
  • Decades, on the other hand, are to be written with Arabic numerals: 1930s, not 1930’s or nineteen thirties.


  • One to ninety-nine are given in words; 100 and above in numerals
  • Use the least number of numerals possible in page ranges, with the exception of numbers ending in 10-19: 105–6, 134–45, but 113–15
  • Numbers over 1,000 are set with commas: e.g. 1,540

Spelling and Style

  • Use British English spellings, including “-ise” rather than “-ize” (or “-isa” instead of “-iza”) endings (e.g. “standardisation” instead of “standardization”) endings. Be advised that many spellcheckers fail to capture these and you therefore might have to do search and replace.
  • No “Oxford comma” before “and” in listings.
  • The First World War, not World War I or WWI.
  • Use “em dashes” without space for: “Canada—and its allies—were informed.”.
  • Ellipses are represented by three dots inside square brackets “[…]”, but a space on each side. This applies even when whole sentences are left out.
  • Avoid abbreviations such as “e.g.”, “i.e.”, and “etc.” in the text.
  • Do not use full stops (.) with abbreviations of titles and organizations: thus, Dr, St, US
  • Use full stops for abbreviations of weights and measures.
  • Possessives for words ending in s are usually denoted as ’s, except for ancient names or when the word ends in an -iz or -es sound. E.g. Moses’, Hopkins’s, but Bridges’, Dulles’.
  • As much as possible, avoid using passive-voice constructions (i.e. “bombs were dropped on twelve targets” – use “the Air Force dropped bombs on twelve targets” instead).

Figures and tables

  • Please make sure that all figures have a resolution that is not lower than 300 dpi and is submitted in .png or .tiff format.
  • Figures and tables must be saved separately from the text and should not be embedded in the main manuscript text. Indicate the placement of the figure or in the main file with capitalised bold letters as follows:
  • Figures should be supplied in .png or .tiff format
  • All figures must be numbered in the order in which they appear in the paper (e.g. figure 1, figure 2). In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled (e.g. figure 1(a), figure 1(b)).
  • The file name for a graphic should correspond to the instructions in the main file, e.g. “Figure 1. The Battle of Verdun”. Tables must also include a reference to the source of the information.
  • Please also remember that you have to obtain permissions to reproduce all figures, photographs and other copyrighted material, as specified in the License Agreement.

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